Programming

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Benefits of using C++

C++ has many advantages compared to c programming language and other languages. One of the advantages is strong type checking++ programming uses classes, inheritance and automatic type. The conversions method in C++ eliminates need of abominable void in C programming

The other advantage Is that C++ has type-safe linkage, this ensures that a user may not call a routine accidentally from other modules with the wrong number of parameters, this happens even if the header file are out of date.

C++ also has complex type of data. In C++ library there is inclusion of all standard computation and arithmetic operations, which are implemented as operations and not function call.

In C++ programming language we have user-defined functions and operations this overloading is supported. When the definition of user data one can initialize which operations and functions are declared. When using C++ programming language, a user may use pre-determined libraries in providing robust new type of data which are made available and easy to use the class ‘math.h+.+’is used to implement all multidimensional array use in computation and high-level manipulations and intuitive syntax in programming

In C++ programming language the users can enjoy defined automatic type conversion used in converting between data types. Example Rogue wave library helps in converting data from double array to the complex one. The user can utilize inline functions and make use of macros safety

C++ being a higher level programming language it can call ANSI code directly and may call compiled C source code so you may not need to learn new things at all C++ program also works well even after finishing the conversion but the C program crashes.

In C++ the user doesn’t need to make the declarations of all variables on the beginning of every block. This helps users to arrange and organize the program code into all logically related programs complete with the declarations on top. By doing this, your code will be manageable and easy to debug. If you use a constant modifier make sure that the variables whose value shouldn’t change after it’s first computed arithmetically.



Antivirus software assessment

The world wide web is a blessing in disguise for individuals who use it appropriately. Nevertheless, it is just the reverse for people who do not utilize it correctly. Your pc may contain several important data files, which you would not prefer to show to other people. In case you didn’t understand, the internet is full of deceptive internet sites that are hanging around to infect your pc and gather all of the important data. Chances are that your pc contains a keylogger, a type of computer virus, downloaded from some fraudulent website without you being aware about it.

This wicked bit of program code will make a note of all of your keystrokes and then deliver them to someone else. Can you imagine the situation if somebody otherwise managed to accumulate information about your plastic card? This apart, other viruses can cause chaos along with your computer. They can format your hard drive thereby deleting all your vital files as well as applications. Whilst you can replace the programs by installing them, what can you do concerning the lost data? Your very best choice is always to install appropriate antivirus application. Earlier, the majority of antivirus programs could deal with and eradicate viruses only. Nevertheless, this is not adequate nowadays.

An excellent antivirus program should be able to identify and get rid of viruses together with trojans. This apart, it should automatically connect to the server and update itself every time new virus signature files are detected and their cures are launched. An excellent antivirus application should also not eat an excessive amount of your computer’s memory. This apart, it should continuously operate in the background and seize and get rid of a virus the moment it enters your computer. The problem is that you will find so several manufacturers of antivirus applications with each one of them claiming to be the best. The majority of reputable organizations that manufacture antivirus programs permit you to download a demo edition of their product and use it for some days. These demo programs simply detect the viruses present in your pc, but do not get rid of them. You have to buy the application for carrying out this task. You’ll be surprised to know that numerous organizations provide antivirus programs without any cost. These types of totally free programs function as efficiently just as the paid ones. Keeping all the above aspects at heart, you ought to examine the specifics of several antivirus programs prior to downloading and setting up one of them. Search online for websites that provide you along with reviews of antivirus application if you do not know about antivirus applications.



What it takes to be a good computer programmer

What it takes to be a good computer programmer

Generally, becoming a programmer requires you to continually build your programming skills over time. Besides, you also need to be dedicated to learning your target programming language. In a nutshell, becoming a programmer is a process that entails personal commitment, regular practice and generally focusing the energy on becoming a better programmer. In this guide, we cover what it takes to be a good computer programmer, however, to achieve your goal of becoming a competent programmer; you have to go an extra mile in whatever you’re required to do.

  1. 1. Enrol for an introductory course in programming.

Before you can become a programmer, it is important to take an introductory course in programming. You can choose to take a programming language course, or Logics course, or a discrete mathematics course. Alternatively, you may choose to take all of these courses in preparation for becoming a good computer programmer. These courses are an integral part of preparing you to solve problems using a computer program.

  1. 2. Take time to understand database concepts

A database is one component of computer programming that any serious programmer cannot do without. As such, it’s important for any aspiring programmer to take their time off to purposely learn database concepts including, the database structures, tables, rows, fields and so on. It’s important for you to have an understanding of how the database works and how its different components relate to each other. You can enroll for an MS Access or MySQL or Oracle class to understand these concepts.

  1. 3. Decide the type of programming you want to get into

It is important to understand that you can join one or more of the programming field below: Mobile application programming, games programming, desktop application programming, web programming, distributed applications programming, library/framework/platform/core programming, system programming, and many more programming areas.

Choose an area to venture into after thoroughly evaluating your programming and career goals, your strengths, and your shortcomings. Good programmers have their fields of specialization; nobody will take you as a serious programmer if you cannot specialize in at least one area in the programming field.

  1. 4. Learn the technologies associated with your fields of choice

Every programming field, be it web, desktop, mobile programming, there are technologies behind its implementation. For instance, if you have chosen to go into the web programming field, you should learn all that makes up web programming in terms of technology. You have to acquire knowledge an HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, POP3, SMTP, TCP, IP protocols, HTML, XML, Coldfusion, ASP, JSP, PHP, and ASP.NET.

Besides, you need to browse through several websites in pursuit of information regarding the working or deployment of these technologies.

You also need to look for different projects either post or running online that are relevant to your area of specialization and try to understand the technology behind them. By doing this, you’ll learn to embrace your field’s best practices and eventually become one of the best in your programming discipline.



When to use logic operators in computer programming

Computer Programming

This is an art of composing beneficial, sustainable, and expansible source code. It has a chance to be translated or aggregated through computer systems in performing serious assignments.

Programming includes various exercises for example, analysis, creating understanding, generating algorithms, confirmation of prerequisites of calculations including their accuracy and assets consumption. The reason for programming is to discover an arrangement for instructions that will mechanize the performance of a particular task or comprehend an issue. The methodology for programming requires experts in various fields including learning of the requisition domain, specific algorithms, and formal rationale.

Logic operators are extraordinary image or expressions which associate two or many expressions of the data. It is regularly utilized to test if a sure relationship between expressions is correct or false. In computing, legitimate operations are fundamental in modeling the route that data streams through electrical circuits, for example, the circuits in the CPU. These logic operators include AND, NOT, OR, NOR and XOR

The logic AND

It is used to return true just if every last bit of its inputs would be genuine inconsistency. Assuming that whatever of the inputs is false, those yield is also false. For workstation programming, the operation will be a rule composed similarly as &&.

The logic NOT

It is used to return true when input is being false and false if the input is valid. To PC programming, NOT operation is typically composed as! (a shout mark).

At the Boolean algebra, the NOT quality of an enter A is illustrated as A̅

The logic OR

It is used to return true when any of the inputs are genuine inconsistency. When every input is false, the yield is likewise. Over PC programming, OR operation is generally illustrated by ||. The Boolean algebra, the value OR containing the two inputs of A then B is used to compose A+B.

The logic NOR

The NOR rationale operation (which is “NOT OR”) is used to return true if every last bit to its inputs would be false, and false when its inputs is genuine inconsistency. The Boolean algebra, NOR with two inputs A then B is used to compose

The logic XOR

Helps to return genuine inconsistency when any of the inputs differ. And false when all are the same. For the Boolean algebra, XOR having A then B as it value then it can be used to compose A⊕B.

The logic operators are also used in the mathematic formulas e.g. (A=B),(A=B) and many others. They usually have the probability of two occurrences i.e. true and false



Why C Programming is still in Use Despite the Advent of Higher Programming Languages

C programming language is still in use today despite the presence of other higher level languages.Most of the operating systems in use today were developed long time ago but make use of the C Programming language. The Unix operating system and Oracle database have their code written in C language. Microsoft Windows, Linus, Mac and mobile phones have systems programmed in C language. Databases such as Oracle, MySQL, MSSQl server and PostgreSQL are coded in C.3D movies are made with applications that are written in C and C++.

Most of the devices we use today use embedded systems and are most likely programmed in C.Due to the flexible features,C will be found in most of the brands that we use on a daily basis.Despite the fact that there are many programming languages C remains unbeatable for various reasons;

Easy to use

C is used to express ideas in a way that most people will quickly understand. The principles and parameters used in C are also available in other languages making it easy even for people who don’t understand the language.C is a portable assembly language and its available for processor architects. Compilers, libraries, and interpretation of other programming languages are done in C language due to of its ease of use.

Pointer Arithmetic and memory Manipulation abilities

Arbitrary memory address access and pointer arithmetic make C the perfect language for operating and embedded systems. Computer systems must read and write into memory addresses that they map their peripherals and I/O pins into and C ability to manipulate the memory is an important characteristic.

Effective use of Resources

Embedded application have limited time and memory resources and c ability to manage memory especially if memory is scarce.Since the C language does not depend so much on dynamic allocation, it’s perfect for limited resource systems.

Small code Size

The C programming language has a short runtime, and its footprint memory is small as compared to other languages.The C generated binary code that goes into embedded systems is half the size of most of other languages’ provides a more compact code as compared to other languages and for systems that don’t have additional space its perfect.

C is also considered one of the easiest languages to learn especially for developers.It’s also one of the widely used languages therefore an advantage to be able to understand the language.



The Programming Acceptable Use Policy

Disclaimer: The ideas contained in this document are completely opinionated in nature, though they may coincide with the general views of professional programmers and system administrators, and the field of Computer Science in particular. These ideas have arisen from neary nine years’ experience as a computer programmer in Pascal, C, C++, Java, Perl, Pascal, and PHP.

This document is intended as a boilerplate take at how one might (or should) approach syntactical aspects of computer programming. Generally, the ideas stated herein are language-independent, but for the most part they apply to C-like languages (C/C++/Java). This document is also intended as a guide to help beginning programmers develop a standard coding style. Such a style is important in situations where others may read your code, and important still when you read or debug your own code.

Step 1: Get used to a powerful code editor.

Here, I don’t mean an IDE. Integrated Development Environments are for people who need to drag and drop functionality into their code. Some examples of powerful code editors are standard UNIX text editors: Emacs, Vi, Vim, Joe. Generally, it doesn’t matter which editor you use. I endorse Emacs because it gives me many code-friendly features:

Automatic language-specific indentation. This is great because hitting the Tab key under most editors will either insert a tab character or eight spaces. Under Emacs, hitting the Tab key automatically inserts a number of spaces, whose length depends on the editing mode (such as c-mode, perl-mode, html-mode). I have gotten this feature to work with Vim, but I do not prefer modal editors.

Language-specific syntax highlighting. Although this feature doesn’t touch the final product, it’s great for structural visualization.

Parenthesis and brace matching. This feature allows me to easily see the alignment and pairing of the two most important code tokens — parentheses and curly braces. Especially with languages like C, leaving out one of these can generate hordes of errors.

Step 2: Use a consistent indentation style, regardless of the editor.

# The following set of guidelines should be considered when indenting code: Function prototypes should be on the left margin.
# The top-level code inside a function should be indented one tab’s width from the left margin. That is, if a function contains only one line of code, there should be one tab before the first character on that line of code.
# All code inside a block should be indented one tab’s width from the block’s opening line. That is,

for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
// code inside the block should be
// indented. Here the tab width is
// two spaces. }

A full example follows:

void testFunc(void *param) {
// this is a sample remark
for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
// this is a super-indented remark
i++;}}

Step 3: Space tokens apart.

The following is an example of insufficient token spacing:

if(a==5&&b==6){i++;}

# Instead, these guidelines form a good spacing policy: Place one (1) space around each and every assignment and comparison operator. This set includes ||, &&, ==, <=, >=, !=, +=, -=, /=, *=, =.
# Place one (1) space between control statements and their counterpart expressions. That is, between for and its corresponding ternary condition, if, else, while, etc.
# Place one (1) space between type specifiers and parameter names in function prototypes, and after the commas in between parameter names. For example,

void testFunc(void param1, char *param2);
^ ^ ^

# Place zero (0) spaces after opening parentheses and before closing parentheses.
# Place at least one empty line of code before all blocks, including if statements and functions. This applies especially to very small blocks of code whose existence may be hard to determine when scanning for errors. However, this does not apply to atomic operations, such as i++;. If a remark accompanies the block, the blank line[s] should come before the remark:


i++;

// loop comment here
for (…) {

Though tedious, these guidelines produce code like the following:

void testFunc(void param1, char *param2) {

if (param2) {
param2++;

// do something useless inside this loop
for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

// do something with i here. This is another
// block-level comment.
if (i == 2) {
// blah.}}}}

Step 4: Use consistent placement of curly braces, pointers (*/&), and use a consistent capitalization scheme.

# Always place the opening brace for a block on the same line of code that contains the block’s opening statement. That is, never do this:

void testFunc(void *param)
{..

# The closing brace for a block should be at the same indentation level as the line of code that contains the block’s opening statement.
# When possible, do not enclose single-line blocks’ contents with braces. That is, when using a for or if construct for which there is only one line of enclosed code, omit the braces. Indentation rules for these situtations still apply, however. For example,

if (condition)
i++;..

# When using a pointer token with a parameter name in a function prototype, put the pointer token next to the variable name, not the type specifier (void *param). This also applies to standard variable declarations.
# When naming variable, use a name that describes its function using as small an expression as possible. In fact, one- or two-word descriptions are best. This naming scheme applies to all named entities such as function names, etc. Furthermore, use the following rules when naming entities: use only alphabetic characters, numbers when necessary. Capitalize all words in the name except the first. For example, configGenerator or loopVariable. Shortening and abbreviation is always preferred, especially if the result is succinct. The above examples would then be confGen and loopVar, respectively. In addition, make sparing use of underscores at all times*. The main idea is that reduction of special keys that must be typed leads to a reduction in the overall complexity of typing a segment of code; this idea’s importance grows with the code size.
# Use all caps for #defines only.

Step 5: Make minimal use of global variables, observe modularity, and respect flow control.

# Stay away from global variables when possible. The only globally accessible elements of a program should be in the form of #defines and other constants. Use of global variables promotes laziness. That is, if an entire system is designed in such a way that a web of dependencies and conditions is required to keep it running, the system will be inherently unstable, unmanageable, and ultimately non-portable. Furthermore, by using global variables throughout a program it is exposed to the risk introduced by faulty modifications of those globals; if functionality is compartmentalized in functions or classes, debugging becomes easier, problems are easier to target, and their effects are less widespread. In some cases use of these variables is unavoidable, at which point their use should be closely monitored and concisely documented. Documentation is important, most of all, and is detailed in the next section.
# Modularity is a programmer’s best friend. The idea is to build a program in such a way that its components’ functionalities can be re-used elsewhere, and/or in new ways. To do this, the components must be designed to work by themselves. In other words, a list struct and functions that operate on list structs would be better than a specialized list with specific features and preconditions dependent on the structure of the program.
# Here I address the issue of flow control with specific attention to the exit system call and other similar program-altering functions. Whether you’re using System.exit in Java or exit(0) in C / C++ programs, the point is this: the exit point of a program should always lie in its main body rather than an outlying subroutine or function. This idea applies recursively. That is, functions should always return, rather than exit. If a routine is called whose preconditions are false, the program should not terminate. The calling block should be given the opportunity to handle the error gracefully and properly. The following is an example of improper flow control:

int testFunc(void *param) {
// something goes wrong here
if (!param)
exit(1);}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {

int result;
result = testFunc(NULL);

return result;}

Some compilers would warn you that the testFunc function is not returning a value, as it should. Such a warning may be ignored if that’s the intention, but the main idea is that main has no jurisdiction over the fact that testFunc will terminate the program upon discovering that its parameter is null. This can be dangerous because a program may terminate inside a library call, if that call violates this principle, for example. In such a situation the programmer has no control over that call and no way to determine the exact exit point of the program (without the use of a debugger, that is). The main function above should be granted the right to decide how to deal with testFunc’s return value. Instead, the previous example would be rewritten as int testFunc(void *param) {




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